“All flesh is grass, 20. Now that we have a basic overview, we’ll look at each theory in (exhaustive) detail. It occurs 76 times in the Greek new testament and the primary meaning of head as part of the human body occurs in 62 of the 76 places. Great info, to the point, well done. The WEB fixed that problem as it uses the majority of the manuscripts, and also removes verses or phrases that are not in the majority of the manuscripts, including Revelation. 🙂 )  Both Textual Variants are meaningful, but it’s nearly impossible for them to be original (they aren’t viable). But the Romans 16:25-27 and 14:24-26 text are identical. As most of the 5700 manuscripts are the type that was used in the King James/New King James, which sometimes uses renderings not found in the Greek manuscripts, especially in Revelation, where the Latin Vulgate Bible was copied and translated into Greek and used in the KJV and the NKJV did not correct it. You said applying verses 10 to male authority doesn’t make sense, but it makes perfect sense. So what we have are copies of copies of the original (sometimes many generations of copying deep).  Before Gutenberg invented the printing press in the early-mid 1400s, everything was copied by hand.  Therefore, it should come as no surprise that the scribes who did the copying occasionally made some mistakes. As you may remember, both Aland and Westcott & Hort had trouble sticking to their rules (except “older is better”).  They both believed that scribes were more likely to add content than remove content.  Therefore, they had the saying “the shorter reading is the more probable reading.”. School of philosophers. Now I will arise,” says the LORD; “I will set him in the safety for which he longs.”. In English the indefinite article “a” gets an “n” added when the next word starts with a vowel.  For example: Greek applies this rule more frequently, and that’s the most common textual variant. This is also recorded in Mark 13:31 and Luke 21:33, but we’ll look at the Matthew version because it’s more commonly cited. This is especially interesting because they also said the “Antiochian” (Byzantine) text was the “dominant” text in the second half of the 4th century (the later 300s). (Not a big deal for you, I’m sure, but I’m just s single mom of three with a thirst for the Word.) The modern NA27 and NA28 are closer to Westcott & Hort’s 1881 text than the NA25. Despite the numerous Textual Variants between them, there’s an interesting theory about their origin. Studying translations from both textual traditions may assist the serious student of Scripture to observe the … The reference works below, compiled by Les He will gather the lambs with His arm, by Michael D. Marlowe. Among the existing manuscripts of the New Testament, there are three major divisions based on their content.  These divisions aren’t hard and fast, but rather provide a framework to talk about the different Textual Variants. The transliterated Greek reads:  dia touto opheilei hē gunē exousian echein epi tēs kephalēs dia tous angelous. If you heard it read, you’d realize it’s an easy mistake to make because they sound almost identical. The scribe’s line of sight skips from the first instance of the word “text” to the second instance of the word “text”, accidentally skipping everything in between (the red text in the example).  This is a well-known, well-documented scribal error, even having its own name.  You might’ve even made this error yourself, just not on New Testament manuscripts. More on that in a moment.  He wasn’t the only one who thought this either: In this connection, it is worth noting that the translators of the King James Version did not follow exclusively any single printed edition of the New Testament in Greek. O Jerusalem, . In the 10th or 11th century, at least two scribes made corrections to the Codex Vaticanus.  This isn’t altogether uncommon with ancient manuscripts, but it does mean some places represent a 1th or 1tth century version, not a 4th century version. Throughout Europe the Elzevir editions came to occupy a place of honor, and their text was employed as the standard one for commentary and collation. No, and Here’s Proof, Yes, The Bible CLEARLY Says Sex Outside of Marriage is Wrong, Seeing the Bible from the Hebrew Cultural Perspective, Readings are approved or rejected by reason of the quality, and not the number, of their supporting witnesses, The reading that best conforms to the grammar and context of the sentence should be preferred, The reading that best conforms to the style and content of the author should be preferred. Thank you for this wonderful, well informed article. In the Textual Criticism of Homer’s works, we see excellent parallels with the New Testament, even so far as reproducing similar “text types”. Sep 29, 2005 #2 Hello Nick, Three main reasons 1. In modern times, all of these various Greek manuscripts we’ve just discussed are called the “Textus Receptus”. Whether you count Bible translations based on the Critical Text vs Bible translations based on the Majority Text; or copies of the Greek Majority Text vs the Greek Critical Text, the Critical Text becomes the clear winner. EDIT: I finally got around to writing an article on the topic, which you can read here. Remember “The Word” is one of Jesus’ main titles, especially in the writings of John.  Now, let’s look at Isaiah 40 in greater context, and you’ll see it’s clearly a Messianic passage. In the Vulgate, we find over half of the Alexandrian readings. Adding to this the 34 new readings in NA28, the total number of full disagreements in the 28th edition of Novum Testamentum Graece against WH1881 is 695. The Biblical Case for the Doctrine of Preservation, The Biggest Problem with the Confessional Position, “Okay, But is the Textus Receptus a good Document?”, Summary of the Critical Text vs. In fact, the most common type of Textual Variant is spelling differences, often a single letter.  Remember, there was no dictionary in ancient times, and thus no defined right or wrong way to spell a word.  The single most common textual variant is called a “moveable Nu“, with “Nu” being the Greek letter which sounds like our “N”. Many Christians who could not withstand the persecution handed over their Scriptures to the authorities to be publicly burned. Scrivener identifies 190 readings where the Authorized Version translators depart from Beza’s Greek text, generally in maintaining the wording of the Bishop’s Bible and other earlier English translations. From Europe to the Near East, the Textus Receptus was derived from 95% of the Bible manuscripts that are referred to in common as the Majority Text, Byzantine Text, Antiochan Text, Authorized Version, etc. The [fourth-century] text of Chrysostom and other Syrian [= Byzantine] fathers … [is], must have had in the greater number of extant variations, The overwhelming majority of readings,” “almost all variants,” and “practically all the substantive variants in the text of the New Testament”, The criticism of the Homeric epics proceeds on much the same line, The shorter form in Homer is considered to reflect Alexandrian critical know-how and. 10 Behold, the Lord God shall come with a strong hand, It’s close-ish, but the actual path was slightly more convoluted than that. I’ve had an NIV Bible for a long time and stumbled across some KJV only preachers on youtube who challenged my translation. There is one man who has proposed another model I find agreeable, and I confess I got many of my ideas from him.  His name is James Snapp Jr. and he owns the blog: The Text of the Gospels, which I highly recommend.  In fact, it’s usually the first place I look for answers on questions relating to Textual Variants.  He proposed an approach which he calls “Equitable Eclecticism” which he explained in two articles.  Part 1 is mostly a history lesson for context, and is well worth reading.   Part 2 focuses more on the actual methodology. (‘her’ is supplied and not in the original but makes it clear that it is the woman’s head that the symbol is placed upon). So – just to make sure I’m understanding you correctly – it sounds like you’re saying it’s reasonable to ignore whether a word is singular or plural when exegeting the scriptures? Second, this is Matthew 24; nearly the entire chapter is prophecy.  Is it possible that Jesus is talking about His prophecies in that chapter?  This actually makes a lot of sense if you look at the Greek word used. “Prepare the way of the Lord; The Greek word ‘epi’ when used with the genitive as in ‘tēs kephalē’ means over or upon. From those two options, we can create a list of four types of Textual Variant. Royse provides a chart which conveys that Papyrus 45 has 222 significant singular readings; Papyrus 46 has 471 significant singular readings; Papyrus 47 has 51 significant singular readings; Papyrus 66 has 107 significant singular readings; Papyrus 72 has 98 significant singular readings; Papyrus 75 has 119 significant singular readings.  (In a footnote, Royse helpfully defines “significant singular readings” as “those singular readings that remain after exclusion of nonsense-readings and orthographic variants.”). For the mouth of the Lord has spoken.”. It is her own head that she carries on her shoulders. Again, the odds of all those scribes making the same error is vanishingly low. Other Greek texts besides the Critical Text used for producing English Bibles are the Majority Text and the Textus Receptus. Some lesser, non-salvation related … The Alexandrian text is about 5% smaller than the Byzantine text, and there are some differences in words between the two texts. Let’s assume – for the sake of argument – that the Majority Text is essentially identical to the original. F.H.A. And the rough places smooth; 5 The glory of the Lord shall be revealed, Perhaps you could address that in any amended versions or separately. A vast number of early manuscripts were destroyed in the early persecutions of the Church.  There were already ten major periods of persecution of Christians before Nicea: One of the most ruthless of these persecutions was that of Diocletian in the early 4th century.  Eusebius, Church historian of the same era, recorded that many “Scriptures” were burned during the Diocletian persecution.  He writes in Church History (VIII:2): “All these things were fulfilled in us, when we saw with our own eyes the houses of prayer thrown down to the very foundations, and the Divine and Sacred Scriptures committed to the flames in the midst of the market-places, and the shepherds of the churches basely hidden here and there, and some of them captured ignominiously, and mocked by their enemies. Despite the Byzantine text type being vindicated by extremely early manuscript findings, there remains a persistent bias against Byzantine readings for no apparent reason. My guess – and it’s only a guess – is that the Latin Vulgate had the plural (staves) and so the KJV translators went with that. Further, you note, correctly of course, that the Bible doesn’t save anyone…Christ and His work provide salvation…you, in exhaustion I hope and not in dishonesy, fail to deal with the fact that this offer of salvation is conveyed to us by God’s words or not at all. a lot of times. The word that’s highlighted is Hebrew word “אֱמוּנָה” (emunah).  And it means: So, “truth” in the KJV isn’t unwarranted, but hardly the primary meaning.  Therefore, this verse doesn’t teach Preservation either. When he finished he had produced an edition of the Greek New Testament which more closely underlies the text of the AV than any one edition of the Textus Receptus. I say “intentionally” because in at least one place, there’s no other reason to translate the way they did other than a desire to change the text. You who bring good tidings, Thus there were places in which it is unclear what the Greek basis of the New Testament was. Patronage and Reciprocity: The Context of Grace in the New Testament, Is the Catholic Church Infallible? This disproportionate copying could be a good thing, as we saw in the section on whether scribes copied better manuscripts.  However, that doesn’t mean it was a good thing.  There’s simply no way to know if the more accurate manuscripts were preserved this way.  You have to trust that scribes did indeed copy the best manuscripts. Another great thing about the WEB: The makers of this Bible wanted to fill a void, to create a modern translation with no copyright, a Bible that can be freely shared, or the whole Bible printed out and given to a friend without a royalty. Here’s the same verse properly translated, in an (unfinished) translation that’s fast becoming my favorite. Get up into the high mountain; It’s “παρέρχομαι” (parerchomai), just like in Matthew 5:18 which we just looked at.  It means: Could it be that Jesus was saying “my words shall not be rendered void“?  i.e. 17 “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. 8 The grass withers, the flower fades, Yeah, that’s a lot; so here’s a picture to make sense of it. Please notice the casual dismissal of the Byzantine text type by one of the most respected textual critics of our age.  I’m honestly not sure why it’s dismissed so easily.  Codex Alexandrius is the third oldest (nearly) complete manuscript, dating from the early 400s.  Why dismiss the Gospels just because they are a different text type? The edition most closely followed by them was Beza’s edition of 1598, but they departed from this edition for the reading in some other published Greek text at least 170 times, and in at least 60 places, the KJV translators abandoned all then-existing printed editions of the Greek New Testament, choosing instead to follow precisely the reading in the Latin Vulgate version. VIII. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which, at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God, and, by His singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical;(r) so as, in all controversies of religion, the Church is finally to appeal unto them. He was able to view 43 sheets, which was a third of the sheets that were to be burned.  Therefore, ~130 pages were going to be burned.  It’s worth noting that Codex Sinaiticus is far longer than 130 pages.  The British museum has 694 pages, which is over half the original length. Thank you for creating an such a well constructed article. oldest surviving complete New Testaments, surviving partially due to the By evidence, I mean quotations from the early church fathers and looking at the versional manuscripts (translations).  I would give the translations somewhat less weight than Greek texts, but not discard them entirely. We have more manuscripts of the Byzantine text type by far than the other two families combined. I have to say though that this article was a HUGE help in my deciding factor of what to do. The WEB is the first major translation to use the Majority Text. which is much like Garrett's book below. And carry them in His bosom, This is also the text that agrees with more than 95% of the Bible Manuscripts in Koine (common) Greek. And all flesh shall see it together; )  The Alexandrian text type is slightly shorter than the Byzantine text type. For example.  I’m writing this paragraph very early in the morning. More recent manuscript findings have proved this wrong, but more on that later.  Westcott & Hort thought the Byzantine text family resulted from some scribes combining the other two text types to try and get closer to the original document (much like they were doing). The Scriptures were not corrupted before Christ’s time, for then Christ would not have sent the Jews to them. Persecution under Marcus Aurelius (161-180). The Hebrew word there is “אֶמֶת” (emeth), and it means: Nearly every translation (besides the KJV, NKJV, and NASB) translate it as “faithfulness” or something similar. 21. 1. The Majority Text vs. I don’t hold to a Confessional Bibliology, I believe they don’t actually take their reasoning to its actual logical end. I unrolled the cover, and discovered, to my great surprise, not only those very fragments which, fifteen years before, I had taken out of the basket, but also other parts of the Old Testament, the New Testament complete, and, in addition, the Epistle of Barnabas and a part of the Pastor of Hermas. Variants must never be treated in isolation, but always considered in the context of the tradition. word “text” to the second, The too lively satisfaction which I had displayed had aroused their suspicions as to the value of this manuscript. The WEB reads like a smooth ASV in the New Testament. It’s possible, but definitely not certain. Actually, we know it did… we just don’t know if it happened with errors. Nearly everyone would choose one of the three to copy from.  Or perhaps you’d use all of three, using the combination to correct the few small variants between them. Note: it will sound like I’m strongly biased in favor of the Majority Text while I present the “pro” side of the argument.  I’m not. So no, the entire Codex Sinaiticus wasn’t going to be burned. The Textual Variants between them are numerous. The odds of all the scribes making the same error are extremely low.  Even if two scribes (40%) did, the majority of scribes (60%) will have preserved the correct reading. The Alexandrian text type will need little introduction because nearly all modern Bibles are based on the Alexandrian text type.  If you pick up any popular Bible (except the KJV and NKJV) it’s almost certainly translated primarily from the Alexandrian text type.  Almost all of the oldest manuscripts we have are of the Alexandrian text type, probably due to the climate in the location where they are typically found (Alexandrian is in Egypt, and their dry climate is ideal for preservation. (Though as we’ve already seen there’s reason to think it was the dominant text.). It gets rid of archaic words and phrases, provide quotation marks (they were not in the ASV), and resolves textual issues that have appeared after 1901. Reasoned Eclecticism / Critical Text Conclusion, The Mathematical Case for The Majority Text, However, Some say this mathematical model is Wrong. (He was the primary editor of the modern Critical Text, which is the basis for nearly all modern translations. We have to assume that the original … was a medium [= vulgate] text… The longer texts … were gradually shaken out: leads us to assume a medium text or vulgate in existence during the whole time of the hand-transmission of Homer, This consideration … revives the view … that the Homeric vulgate was in existence before the Alexandrian period… [Such]. All of these essentially look to the manuscripts of the Byzantine family as the basis for the New Testament text. However, today’s texts are not identical to these earlier texts. Psalms 100:5 (KJV): For the LORD is good; his mercy is everlasting; and his truth endureth to all generations. On the afternoon of this day I was taking a walk with the steward of the convent in the neighbourhood, and as we returned, towards sunset, he begged me to take some refreshment with him in his cell. 5 “Because of the devastation of the afflicted, because of the groaning of the needy, ( ‘her own’ are supplied and not in the original but like the KJV and the NKJV versions makes it clear that the authority or symbolic authority is placed on or over the woman’s own head). In general it does agree with the latter more often than not, but it also differs at numerous places, due to the manuscripts used by Erasmus and to … Even those who love the manuscript will admit it has serious quality problems.  Even the official Codex Sinaiticus Project website (link above) admits this: No other early manuscript of the Christian Bible has been so extensively corrected. The problem was Westcott & Hort’s application of the theory. … NIV, marketed by said Rupert Murdock,  is being exposed for its So no, this verse doesn’t teach the Doctrine of Preservation. No, a prophetic application is what the verse is about, and thus the Confessional Bibliogist is correct in using that way. (Note: the Byzantine Text type has several names, including the Traditional Text, Ecclesiastical Text, Constantinopolitan Text, Antiocheian Text, and Syrian Text.). You who bring good tidings, These Textual Variants have a good chance of being original (viable), and change the meaning of the text (meaningful).  They comprise less than 1% of all Textual Variants. The two words “textum” and “receptum” were changed from the Latin accusative case (direct object) to the Latin nominative case (subject) to render it “Textus Receptus”. To be clear, the theory of Reasoned Eclecticism is very sound; it’s the application of it (thus far) that leaves something to be desired. Make straight in the desert Wallace: There Are 1,838 Differences Between Textus Receptus and the Majority Text. That’s the biggest problem with the Confessional Position.  However, there’s another problem that’s far more practical. They aren’t the only ones to say this either.  The manuscript’s finder Tischendorf – who reckoned it as the greatest find of his life – said the following: On nearly every page of the manuscript there are corrections and revisions, done by 10 different people. This brings us to one of the strongest arguments for the Majority Text theory: that scribes preferred to copy better manuscripts. This is the best I’ve read on this topic so far. As a result, there are parts of Revelation in the KJV/NKJV not supported by a single Greek manuscript. They were originally written on either papyrus (essentially paper) or possibly parchment (animal skins) which have long since degraded with time and use.  However, the originals were copied many, many times.  Those copies were copied, which were copied, which were copied, which were…. Several of Paul’s letter were encyclical, meaning they were intended to be passed around from church to church.  So let’s say one of Paul’s letter arrives at your church and you’re supposed to pass it on.  However, you’d like to keep a copy, so you hire a scribe to copy the letter before passing it on. The reason we’ve spent so much time talking about Westcott & Hort is because the New Testament Critical Text that nearly all modern Bible are based on is virtually unchanged since 1881.  Now, that could be a good thing if you believe Westcott & Hort did a good job originally. The Greek word that’s translated “pass” is “παρέρχομαι” (parerchomai).  It means: I pass by, pass away, pass out of sight; I am rendered void, become vain, neglect, disregard. Again, we’ll go back to Westcott & Hort because they did the original work that virtually all modern New Testament translations are based on.  Remember, their #1 rule was “earlier is better”.  Consequently, their New Testament relied heavily on the two earliest (nearly) complete manuscripts we have: Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus, which we’ll look at in detail shortly, Since these were the two oldest (nearly) complete texts available at the time, Westcott & Hort gave them tremendous weight.  Remember their #1 rule was “Older is better”.  And if “older is better”, then it follows logically that the two oldest manuscripts are the best. 1 Corinthians 11:8-10 (WEB) Rather, decisions in textual criticism must be worked out afresh, passage by passage (the local principle). It was a combination of primarily Westcott & Hott’s work, along with two other Greek New Testaments.   Later it was taken over by his son, and eventually by Kurt Aland and his wife, along with others.  It’s commonly referred to as the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece after the two most significant contributors.  (Eberhard Nestle and Kurt Aland). Text,  Antiochan Text, Authorized Version, etc. Because I’m There is some evidence that Westcott & Hort didn’t have a high opinion of the Bible.  There’s further evidence – based on quotes they said – that they didn’t take the Bible seriously, literally, and endorsed the Theory of Evolution. Persecution under Maximinus the Thracian (235-38). I know almost nothing about Latin, or I’d check. 2. doúlos (127 times in the NT) will be consistently rendered as “slave”. Further (unless they are working in concert) the odds of them coming up with identical changes is minuscule.  So instead of creating a new popular reading, they’re more likely to create several unique readings… and even these are in a small minority. The Textus Receptus was mainly established on a basis of manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type, also called 'Majority text', and … Thank you. Now, about the quality of Codex Sinaiticus. I have heard about the NASB2020 and it seems to be like everything else about 2020: extremely disappointing. This quote is from Bruce Metzger's book, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Fuller/Which … The Majority Text & Textus Receptus vs. Modern Bibles: NLT Version -- FREE - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Erasmus’ Text Receptus maintained a text form that’s similar to the Byzantine Majority Text, but they’re definitely not the same.  Again, they differ in ~2000 places.  That might seem like a lot, but remember the New Testament is just shy of 140,000 words (in Greek).  That’s a ~1.4% variation, which is still fairly significant. Literally this means: because of this ought the woman authority to have over the head because of the angels. Further, there’s no possible way that hippioi (horses) was intended.  It was a simple scribal error, easily noticed and just as easily corrected.  (With a good chuckle. The Majority Text and the Original Text: Are They Identical? Now that we know what Greek text the Confessional Position uses, let’s take a closer look at the various scriptural passages they use to support the doctrine of Preservation (which says God kept His Scriptures “pure in all ages”). Is that really a position you want to take? 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Ed ) ] man wasn’t created for woman, but we’ll look at after the 10th century ASV the! He used the mathematical structure of Greek at Leiden of Greek at Leiden ;! Source for the Majority Text advocates will say this mathematical model is wrong argument. Her own head is just that: with Notes on Selected Readings” by Westcott & Hort’s rule...